What are the universal human rights? – Benedetta Berti

Translator: Ahmad Jarbou Validator: Hussain Laghabi The idea of ​​human rights is that each of us, Whoever we are, or wherever we are born, He deserves the same basic rights and freedoms. Human rights are not privileges, It cannot be granted or canceled. It cannot be confiscated and is global. That might sound quite simple. But it gets very complicated, As soon as anyone tries to put the idea into practice. What exactly are basic human rights? Who can choose it? Who applies it and how? The history behind the concept of human rights is very long. Through centuries and across societies, religions and cultures, We struggled to define the concepts of legitimacy, justice and rights. But one of the most recent assertions of universal human rights, It emerged from the ruins of World War II with the establishment of the United Nations.

The treaty that established the United Nations states that one of its goals: It is to encourage a re-belief in fundamental human rights. And in the same spirits, In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This document, which was written by an international body headed by Elanor Roosevelt, Lay the modern foundations for international human rights law. Advertising is based on the principle That all human beings are born free and are equal in dignity and rights.

The advertisement contains thirty articles in which he states, among other things, The principle of non-discrimination and the right to life and freedom. The declaration refers to negative freedoms, such as freedom from torture and slavery, And also to positive freedoms, Like freedom of movement and housing. The declaration includes basic civil and political rights, Such as the right of expression, freedom of belief, and peaceful assembly, In addition to social, economic and cultural rights As the right to education, The right to the freedom to choose one's job, And to be paid and treated fairly. The declaration does not favor any party in deciding which rights are more important. Emphasizing its comprehensiveness, And its indivisibility, And on their symbiosis. Over the past decades, international human rights law has grown.

By deepening and expanding our understanding of what human rights are, And how to protect it in the best way. So if these principles were so sophisticated, So why are human rights violated, and ignored every time, around the world? The problem, in general, is that it is not easy at all Apply these rights universally, or punish those who violate them.

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Even the Universal Declaration of Human Rights itself, despite being highly reliable and respectful, It is an advertisement, not a firm law. So when individual countries violate it, Mechanisms to address these violations are weak. For example, the main bodies of the United Nations responsible for protecting human rights, Often monitoring and investigating violations. However, it cannot compel states, for example, to change their policies or to compensate the victims. That is why some critics argue that it is naive to take human rights for granted In a world dominated by the interests of states. Critics also question the universal character of human rights. And they stress that its development It is largely directed by a few western countries, often.

At the expense of inclusiveness. The result is? A general bias in favor of civil political freedoms, At the expense of socio-political rights, And in favor of individual rights at the expense of collective rights or group rights. Others defend international human rights laws, They point to the positive role it plays in establishing international standards, And helping activists in their campaigns. They also explain Not all international human rights tools are powerless. For example, the European Convention on Human Rights established a court In which the 47 member states and their citizens raise their cases.

The court issues binding decisions, which each member state must obey. Human rights law is constantly evolving, Our perspectives and definitions of what basic human rights should be evolving as well. For example, how important or fundamental is the right to democracy Or development? As our lives are becoming increasingly digital, Should there be a right to access the Internet? Or a right to digital privacy? What is your opinion?.

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